Explanation of Black-Type and Stakes
Please note that the guidelines listed below are very general explanations of the International Cataloguing Standards Committee rules regarding North American black type. It is necessary to remember that international black-type is awarded based on which part in the International Cataloguing Standards booklet a particular country appears.
The Jockey Club Information Systems, Inc. All Rights Reserved
BLACK-TYPE RACES INCLUDE:
Black Type (stakes) Races
1. Black type (stakes) races are races which:
a). close 72 hours in advance of its running
b). have a fee paid by the owner of the entry
c). until 1985, there was no minimum purse value; beginning January 1, 1985, the minimum purse value for black type races was established at $15,000 added (if the race was divided, each division must guarantee at least $15,000 added). A portion of this purse may be made up of the value of a stallion season as determined by the Breeders' Cup eligibility fee for such stallion the preceding season. Beginning January 1, 1989, the minimum purse value for black type races increased to $20,000-added. The purse value for black type races beginning January 1, 1990, was increased to $25,000-added or $35,000-guaranteed, and starting January 1, 1994, a black type race must have a total purse value distributed on the day of the race of $25,000 or more. Beginning January 1, 2002, the minimum purse value distributed on race day must be $30,000 and the following types of races are no longer awarded black type status: (1) stakes restricted to maidens, (2) stakes that limit eligibility to horses that have started for a claiming price, (3) stakes for horses entered to be claimed, (4) stakes that carry an optional claiming condition. The minimum purse value distributed on race day beginning January 1, 2003, must be $35,000 and the only restrictions allowed for black type status are those races restricted to state-bred runners, non-winners of a sweepstakes, sales graduates and stallions’ progeny. Beginning January 1, 2004, the minimum purse value distributed on the day of the race must be $40,000. Beginning January 1, 2006, all entrants in a race must be eligible for the purse monies used to determine the purse value for black type races. Beginning January 1, 2007 the minimum purse value distributed on the day of the race must be $45,000; races that contain a preference clause(s) based on criteria unrelated to the quality of the horse will not be awarded black type if such preference clause(s) could possibly exclude any horse(s) of superior quality from competing. Beginning January 1, 2008, the minimum purse value distributed on the day of the race must be $50,000.
Black type (stakes) races are divided into the following categories:
Graded races are classified by the American Graded Stakes Committee of the Thoroughbred Owners and Breeders Association (TOBA) as a non-restricted race with added money or guaranteed purse value of $50,000 ($75,000, beginning in 2000) or more which has been run at least twice under similar conditions, on the same surface and has been assigned graded stakes status for the year contested. To be considered for graded status, beginning January 1, 2003, the minimum purse must be: Grade 1, $200,000; Grade 2, $150,000; Grade 3, $100,000. Beginning January 1, 2004, the minimum purse value for a Grade 1 race was raised to $250,000.
Grade (group) designators (-G1, -G2, -G3) were inaugurated in 1971 and were applied to English, French, Irish, German and Italian races, but not applied to North American catalog pages until 1973. These same designators were inaugurated in 1973 for the United States and Canada. Beginning January 1, 1985, brackets [ ] replaced the dash preceding the designators. At this time, the designators could also be listed after a horse's name, indicating its best finish, if there was no room on a catalog page to list a complete race name. Starting January 1, 2002, the track abbreviation where the race was run and the amount of money earned by the individual is carried in parentheses following the grade designators.
As stated above, the first three finishers in a race will receive black type status, but beginning with races run January 1, 1985, fourth place finishes in graded races run in countries listed in Part 1 of the "International Cataloguing Standards" will be recognized as official placings and those horses will also earn black type. This ruling was amended starting January 1, 1989, to award fourth placed finishers black type status in Grade 1 races only. A subsequent ruling beginning January 1, 1990, no longer awards fourth place finishers any black type status.
From 1983 through 2001, listed races in North America are those with an added money value of $50,000 or more, which have not yet received graded status. These races will receive the designator -L (or -LR if restricted) prior to 1985. For the year 1985, the designators were changed to [L] or [LR]. Starting in 1986, the track abbreviation where the race was run and the amount of money earned by the individual is carried in parentheses following the designators. Beginning January 1, 1991, an "L" race may not be restricted. Beginning January 1, 2002, the minimum added money value to qualify as a listed race is $75,000. After January 1, 2006, all entries in a race must be eligible for the purse monies used to determine the minimum purse value for listed status.
Restricted races in North America are those which are restricted to certain runners as defined within the conditions of the race. These conditions tend to exclude runners of greater quality for consideration other than sex or age. These races received the designator -R prior to 1985. Beginning January 1, 2002, the following types of restricted races are no longer awarded black type status: (1) stakes restricted to maidens, (2) stakes that limit eligibility to horses that have started for a claiming price, (3) stakes for horses entered to be claimed, (4) stakes that carry an optional claiming condition. Beginning January 1, 2003, the only restrictions allowed for black type status are those races restricted to state-bred runners, non-winners of a sweepstakes, sales graduates and stallions’ progeny. Beginning January 1, 2006, races that contain preference clauses based on criteria other than the quality of the horse in the race shall be considered restricted races; and as of January 1, 2007 these races will no longer be allowed black type.
Other Added Money Black Type Races
Other added money or black-type races received an [O] (or [OR] if restricted) designator for 1985 only.
[Q] races are unrestricted allowance and handicap races with a purse value of $30,000 or more. These races received black type status in 1985 only.
Non-Qualified Added Money Races
These races are stakes races that were run in 1985 only and had an added money value of less than $15,000. They do not receive black type status but are identified by the [N] designator.
Hurdle or Jump Races
Hurdle and jump races were included in Parts I, II and III of the "International Cataloguing Standards" book and qualified for black type status dependent upon their placement until January 1, 1986. Beginning with this date, these races were placed in Part IV of the publication and lost their black type status for catalogs produced using ICSC guidelines. Horses which won or placed in a hurdle or jump race since January 1, 1986 are now identified by their names being carried in italic mixed case.
STAKES RACES INCLUDE:
Grade 1, 2 and 3 Races - indicated by "G"
Fourth placed finishers in graded races are NOT recognized as placed
Listed Races ($75,000 added & up) - indicated by "L"
Listed Races with Restrictions ($75,000 added & up) - indicated by "LR"
Restricted Races - races that have restrictions other than age or sex - indicated by "R"
Added Money Races - all added money races are recognized as stakes but do not carry an indicator (except when graded or listed)
Jump Races - jump races, consisting of both steeplechase and hurdle races, are eligible for black-type
All races recognized as black-type other than Q races.
Stakes races in North America which do not meet the minimum purse value for black-type.